• Majolica ware

    Majolica ware

    Historical Society of the Phoenixville Area.

    Full

    Majolica Pottery Photo Gallery. The Society has over pieces of Majolica. Some of them are depicted in this photo gallery. The company started in and in began making Etruscan majolica pottery. The company closed in GSH catalogue cover. Sketch of GSH potter'smark or trademark. A Gold Metal piece in Pear pitcher.

    Majolica Ware

    Majolica pineapple vase. Majolica begonia dish. Parian Pottery, Phoenix Pottery Co. Flower dish. White berry dish. Blue berry dish. Pink berry dish. Leaf dish. White pitcher. Another white pitcher. A Gold Metal winner in Another Gold Medal winner in Leaf cake dish. Small bowl with lid. Flower pitcher. Majolica tea service. Majolica athletic theme mugs. Henry Griffen photo. David Smith photo.Thomas Minton began his professional life as an engraver and is credited with the design of the popular blue Willow pattern for Josiah Spode.

    Operating under the name Minton and Poulson, the firm produced blue-printed earthenware and bone china. Although the partnership dissolved inthe following two generations of the Minton family were to shape the future of the ceramic industry in Victorian England and ultimately introduce majolica to the world.

    CHARLES L. WASHBURNE

    Sons Thomas Webb and Herbert Minton joined their father as early as ; Herbert being a mere sixteen years of age while representing the firm in London.

    The firm merged with Royal Doulton in Herbert Minton, a man of singular vision, utilized both his technical prowess and aesthetic talent to integrate the artistry of the past into new types of ceramic wares. Minton combined his manufacturing resources with the experience of French chemist and engineer Leon Arnoux to develop English versions of French and Italian Renaissance pottery. Already experienced in ceramic production in Sevres, Arnoux arrived in England in and remained at Minton as Art Director until his retirement in In short order, majolica became the must-have home decoration of wealthy Victorians.

    Taking advantage of the continuing economic and political turmoil in France, Arnoux was also instrumental in recruiting noted artisans from the continent. Carrier de Belleuse are credited with the development of majolica in the Anglo-French style.

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    Paul Comolera produced large scale animal figures including the iconic Minton Peacock. The earliest examples of painted majolica, including the rare tin-glazed pieces, were executed by Thomas Kirkby.

    Minton produced several styles of majolica throughout the Victorian era. Much of the early production was of the Renaissance and Palissy styles and were displayed at international exhibitions in London, Paris, Philadelphia and Vienna. Few of these pieces remain outside of museums.

    The later and more typically Victorian pieces were created in the style of Naturalism and reflected the contemporary fascination with the diversity of flora and fauna. Most majolica available to collectors is of this style. Minton produced all manner of decorative and functional table wares in a multitude of designs, sizes and color variations.

    Unsurprisingly, they also command among the highest prices in the marketplace. Many pieces also carry a three or four digit shape number which can be identified in various archival references. The presence of a raised diamond shaped British registry mark identifies only the date the pattern was registered. An additional impressed symbol may be present and denotes the actual year the piece was produced.

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    Photo Credits:. Minton Thomas Minton began his professional life as an engraver and is credited with the design of the popular blue Willow pattern for Josiah Spode. Useful Links Resources Members Restorers. Publications Majolica History Collecting Majolica.Some marks will also date an item. Makers were inconsistent. Some marked everything, some just a few pieces, many marked only the main piece of a set or service.

    Minton was perhaps the most consistent. Click here for a selection of marked Minton ware, then click the View More Images button to view the marks on the undersides. Wedgwood were also reasonably consistent. Click here for a selection of marked Wedgwood warethen click the View More Images button to view the marks on the reverse of the platter. The factory never used any date code or cypher. But the mark generally gives a clue to the date of manufacture.

    No factory mark. The registration procedure was set up in to combat plagiarism, making it illegal to copy that pattern for a period of three years. Letters and numbers in the four corners specify the exact date of registration.

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    The system was sufficiently successful that its use continued throughout the majolica period and beyond. More Holdcroft…. Majolica International Society — more information on Victorian Majolica, upcoming events, and research library. The closest thing I have found is a pattern number R — same type of pattern but not the same as Hi, I have large jardiniare with a raised mark like an umbrella, and an embossed number and a number written on with a colored pencil.

    Can someone help me identify the maker? Where can I send photos? Thanks, Warren Aldrich tapestrygardensnh gmail. Hi Warren, Let me know if you still need help on this one.Italian ceramicsor I should say Italian pottery, have been in my life for quite a long time: I collect them, I read about them, I sell them. In Italian, when I say ceramica, everybody understands what I mean. In order to do away with any doubt, I did some research. I did learn quite a lot on the subject and I would love to share my findings with you.

    Ceramic is the most general term. Historically, ceramics were prepared by shaping clay, decorating it, often glazing it and firing it at high temperatures in a kiln. However, this definition has changed. The term ceramics now refers to a diverse group of materials, including types of cement and glass. While all are fired at high temperatures, clay is no longer a key component of ceramics.

    That is why, nowadays, the category ceramics technically includes both pottery and porcelain, which, with their standard formulas, have come to popularly represent quality grades. Pottery is an ornamental or useful ware shaped from moist clay and hardened by heat. The type of clay used and the temperature at which it is fired give pottery a different appearance and strength.

    Majolica — also spelled Maiolica — is the beautiful ware prepared by tin-glazing earthenware and firing it a second time. After the first firing, the bisque is dipped into a bath of fast drying liquid glaze. When dry, the glazed piece is ready to be hand painted.

    This technique originates in the Middle East in the 9th century. By the 13th-century majolica ware was imported into Italy through the Isle of Majorca, headquarter of the trade between Spain and Italy. The Italians called it Maiolica, erroneously thinking it was made in Majorca. They were fascinated by this new way of making ceramics and soon started to copy the process, adapting it by their own creativity and traditions. The rise of Italian majolica in Europe was fast and reached its peak of artistic quality throughout central Italy during the Renaissance — late15th and early 16th centuries.

    Nowadays, in English, the word Majolica is used to refer to ceramic ware in the stylistic tradition of the Italian Renaissance. A huge step ahead. The original question is still unanswered, though. I still do not know what I should call my beloved ware when talking to my American friends. Having rejected the use of Earthenware, because the word is by far too technical, I tested using the term Italian majolica.

    Only museum staff or experts understood what I meant, and many of them figured I was taking about istoriato Renaissance ware, while I had in mind modern Italian majolica pieces. As the next step, I tested the phrase Italian pottery. The result was good, everybody knew I was talking about clay ware in the shape of an Italian bowlan Italian vase or an Italian dinnerware set. I was not satisfied, though. Pottery is any kind of ware shaped from moist clay and hardened by heat. I tested the term Italian ceramics and it worked perfectly.

    Italy is one of those countries: we proudly handcrafted some of the finest ceramics in the history of this art. When we say Italian ceramics, we mean much more than items made of clay, earthenware or majolica. These two words embody artistic heritage, history, regional traditions, the creativity of a people.Victorian majolica properly refers to two types of majolica made in the second half of the 19th century in Europe and America.

    Firstlyand best known, there is the renowned mass-produced majolica decorated with coloured lead glazes, made in Britain, Europe and the US; typically hard-wearing, surfaces moulded in relief, vibrant translucent glazes, in occasionally classical but mostly naturalistic styles, often with an element of High Victorian whimsy.

    Secondlythere is the rare tin-glazed majolica made in Britain only, primarily by Mintons from to circatypically with flat surfaces, opaque white glaze with fine brush painted decoration in imitation of the Italian Renaissance maiolica process and styles.

    Glaze is a vitreous coating on a ceramic. There are four types of glazing : feldspathic or alkali-glazed, salt-glazedlead-glazedand tin-glazed. It is important to understand that lead oxide is the main ingredient of both lead and tin glazes.

    The other ingredients in lead and tin glazes are typically an equally large quantity of silicates sand or stoneand a small proportion of alkali potash or similar ground up with a little water and the large proportion of lead oxide to form a paste.

    A coloured glaze results from adding a very small amount of particular metal oxides to plain lead glazedifferent metal oxides producing different colours [2]. Since midth century coloured glazes earthenware has been known as majolica. An opaque white tin-glaze results from adding a very small amount of tin oxide to plain lead glaze. Decorated with brush-painted enamels, tin-glazed earthenware from midth century onwards has been known as maiolica [4]also later as faiencedelftwaretalaveraor rarely majolicathough commonly majolica in USA [5].

    Victorian majolica is the familiar mass-produced earthenware decorated with coloured lead glazes [6] made during the Victorian era in Britain, Europe and the US, typically hard-wearing, surfaces frequently moulded in relief, vibrant translucent glazes, in a variety of styles and forms [7] some examples below.

    Shown in Britain at the Exhibitions of and [8]it became fashionable, widely copied and mass-produced world-wide. Also known as: maiolica, Palissy warecoloured glazes majolica, coloured-glazed majolica, lead-glazed majolica, and misleadingly 'lead or tin glazed' majolica. Some coloured glazes majolica was produced in traditional Classical or Revivalist [9] styles, but Darwinismnatural historytheir English country gardens, expeditions abroad, and trade in oriental products generated more exciting styles appealing to the upcoming merchant classes.

    There was a boom in Naturalistic [10] pottery, often with an element of whimsy, to which Minton's inexpensive, durable, multi-purpose product was well suited. A strong interest in the world at large generated passing fashions for Egyptian forms, Japanese styles, Chinoiserie and High Victorian style. Conservatories became a fashion statement. The irrepressible urge to impress guests with rare food led to the growing of pineapples and egg-plants aubergines formerly only available overseas.

    These too appeared as decorative objects for admiration around the home. Minton's Palissy ware boomed. Pottery makers throughout Britain, Europe and the US copied the process with great success, albeit variable quality.

    Bread plate or corn platter, temperature compatible coloured glazes on biscuitnaturalistic in style, surfaces molded in relief.

    majolica ware

    Vase, plain and colored lead glazes on buff biscuitmixture of Revivalist styles. Wall plate, c. Flower pot, coloured lead glazes on biscuitnaturalistic in style. Teapot, c. Tin-glazed Victorian majolica is the rare tin-glazed earthenware made in England only, primarily by Mintons [11] from to circatypically with flat surfaces, and opaque whitish glaze with brush painted decoration in the style s of Italian Renaissance maiolica tin-glazed pottery.

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    Also known as: maiolica; and 'lead or tin' glazed majolica. Minton's tin-glazed majolica in imitation of Italian maiolicapraised at Exhibitions and purchased by Royalty and museums, made little commercial impact. Other pottery makers shunned the process. Interest in Renaissance styles was waning, fashion moving on with the usual protestations from older generations: " Cost of production was high. Added to this, the expense of brushwork decoration, especially the fine painting of pictures and designs, was very time-consuming, requiring highly skilled [13]higher paid artists.

    Minton tin-glazed Majolica plate, imitating tin-glazed Italian Renaissance maiolica process and style. Minton tin-glazed Majolica bowl, Majolica is an Italian ceramic wear and pottery that has been produced for hundreds of years. The Italian majolica is so popular that it has been copied and reproduced in countries all over the world.

    Original majolica has its origins in the port of Majorca. This is the port where majolica pottery was first traded. The region that defines Italian Majolica is a town in Umbria named Deruta.

    Deruta has produced Majolica since the 13th century. This area in Italy is popular because of the quality of the clay retrieve from the earth in this region. The clay was gathered from the hills in Umbria. This region still produces Majolica to this day. The superiority of the pottery made in this region has made Majoilca a collectible form of art. The name Majolica is used first as an adaptation of maiolica by Minton in The English variation of this pottery was showcased at an exhibition in at The Great Exhibition.

    The Majolica that is sought after today is Victorian Majolica. The Smith and Hill pieces are marked Etruscan. Markings can be used to verify authenticity.

    Watercolor Majolica by Laurie Curtis

    There are many reproductions and fakes on Majolica on the market so buyer beware. Do your homework and learn what to look for. Markings can be stamped on the bottom of the piece and some Majolica will have no markings. The listed majolica makers, above, did stamp their pieces. Smith and Hill Majolica is marked Etruscan.

    When collecting majolica it may have signs of crazing. Crazing is the fine lines and cracks that are often associated with glazes on potter and ceramics like majolica. Crazing does not affect the value of the piece and the piece is not worthless because it has crazing. Cracks and chips on a Majolica piece are a different matter entirely. Major cracks and chips can completely render a Majolica piece worthless.

    Majolica – Makers’ Marks – Minton, Wedgwood, George Jones and Holdcroft

    Small chips or cracks may diminish value but not take away the value completely. Look for pieces that suggest age.

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    A little dirt, a little crazing. Very clean and clear pieces suggest a replica or fake. However, bright colors and freshness help you tell that the piece was well cared for.Majolicaalso spelled maiolicatin-glazed earthenware produced from the 15th century at such Italian centres as FaenzaDeruta, UrbinoOrvietoGubbioFlorenceand Savona. Tin-glazed earthenware—also made in other countries, where it is called faience or delft—was introduced into Italy from Moorish Spain by way of the island of Majorcaor Maiolica, whence it derived the name by which it was known in Italy.

    The shapes most often employed were the albarelloor drug jar, of Middle East origin; a type of ewer evidently derived from the Greek oinochoe; and, above all, the piatta da pompa, or show dish, in the istoriato, an Italian narrative style from the early 16th century that uses the pottery body solely as support for a purely pictorial effect.

    Although violating aesthetic rules in their subordination of shape to decoration, such wares remain works of great skill, as well as beauty. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Majolica pottery. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Unfortunately, these are variously defined by various authorities. The art of tin-glazing…. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

    The art of tin-glazing was discovered by the Assyrians, who used it to cover courses of decorated brickwork. It was revived in Mesopotamia about the 9th century ce and spread to Moorish Spain,….

    Tin-glazing was introduced in the 13th century from the Middle East through the Muslim civilization in southern Spain, wares being shipped from there to Italy by Majorcan traders. The term majolica was at first applied to this Hispano-Moresque lustreware, but in the 16th century…. The influence of Italian majolica and Chinese porcelain can be seen in the border designs. History at your fingertips.

    majolica ware

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